Types of Adoption

Domestic Non-Relative Adoption

  1. *Adoption through Private Licensed Agency- AGENCY ADOPTION
  • Children come available through birthparent/s who voluntarily choose and plan an adoption for their child/children.
  • The birthparent/s normally choose the adoptive family they desire for their child from a number of adoptive families who are already assessed and approved for adoption.
  • The birthparent/s make many choices regarding how much contact they would like with the adoptive family and child, medical care during pregnancy, the birthing plan and other factors related to their adoption plan.
  • The birthparent/s who choose and plan the adoption voluntarily relinquish their parental rights to the agency so that an adoption can finalize with the adoptive family of their choosing.
  • The birthparent/s who plan the adoption will have independent legal representation to make sure they understand their decision and their rights.
  • Children who come available for adoption this way are most commonly newborn infants.  Only occasionally will an older child be placed voluntarily for adoption.
  • Potential adoptive parents must be thoroughly assessed through a Pre-Placement Study (homestudy) process which includes background checks, financial stability screening, medical screening, child abuse screening, employment verification, identity and marital status verification, references, home inspection and extensive individual and couple (when applicable) interviews.  If the potential adoptive parent/s are assessed to be a stable, safe and appropriate parent/family for a child, then they are approved for adoption.  If they are not approved for adoption, they cannot adopt.
  • Adoptive parents need to be trained and prepared for responding and relating to birthparent/s, though the level of contact and relationship may vary greatly.

      2.  Independent Adoption

 

  • Children come available through birthparent/s who voluntarily choose and plan an adoption for their child/children.
  • The birthparent/s choose the potential adoptive family in a variety of ways: through friends or family contacts, through the internet, through newspaper ads.  Sometimes the family that is selected has not already been assess through a Pre-Placement Study and has not yet been approved for adoption. (That has to take place prior to an adoptive placement for the adoption to be legal.)
  • The birthparent/s may make choices regarding the medical care for the birthmom, the birthing plan, the amount of contact they wish to have with the adoptive family and child, if they are aware that they can make those choices. 
  • The birthparent/s who choose and plan the adoption voluntarily relinquish their parental rights to the agency so that an adoption can finalize with the adoptive family of their choosing.
  • The birthparent/s who plan the adoption should have independent legal representation to make sure they understand their decision and their rights. Sometimes they do not know this is their right.
  • Children who come available for adoption this way are most commonly newborn infants.  Only occasionally will an older child be placed voluntarily for adoption.
  • Potential adoptive parents must be thoroughly assessed through a Pre-Placement Study (homestudy) process which includes background checks, financial stability screening, medical screening, child abuse screening, employment verification, identity and marital status verification, references, home inspection and extensive individual and couple (when applicable) interviews.  If the potential adoptive parent/s are assessed to be a stable, safe and appropriate parent/family for a child, then they are approved for adoption.  If they are not approved for adoption, they cannot adopt. 
  • Adoptive parents need to be trained and prepared for responding and relating to birthparent/s, though the level of contact and relationship may vary greatly.  If they are not pre-assessed or trained for adoption, they may not be as ready to respond and relate to a birthparent appropriately as they should be.
     3.  Adoption from Foster Care System
  • Children come available for adoption after having been removed from birth home for abuse or neglect and repeated attempts to re-unify the family have failed.
  • Birthparent rights are terminated by the court and the child freed for adoption.
  • Children are typically older than infant and have residual effects from the abuse or neglect for which they were removed from their birth home.
  • Potential adoptive parents must be thoroughly assessed through a Pre-Placement Study (homestudy) process which includes background checks, financial stability screening, medical screening, child abuse screening, employment verification, identity and marital status verification, references, home inspection and extensive individual and couple (when applicable) interviews.  If the potential adoptive parent/s are assessed to be a stable, safe and appropriate parent/family for a child, then they are approved for adoption.  If they are not approved for adoption, they cannot adopt.
  • Adoptive parents need to be trained and prepared to deal with mild to very severe emotional and /or behavioral issues and/or acting out related to physical, sexual or other abuse or neglect.

Domestic Relative/Intra-Family Adoption

  • Relative Adoption:
  • Often the adoption is not pre-planned but is a result of any number of situations that result in the need for a family member to adopt a child/children.
  • Close blood relatives of the child may adopt the child without a ‡Pre-Placement Study (homestudy) if the child has already lived with them for a year or more.
  • If the child has not lived with the potential adoptive relative/s a year or more, a Pre-Placement Study (homestudy) is required.

Step-Parent Adoption:

  • The child/children to be adopted are the biological children of one of the spouses and the unrelated spouse wishes to adopt the child/children.
  • There are counseling requirements for the adopting step-parent and the biological spouse if the couple has been married under 2 years or if the child has not lived with the adopting stepparent the required amount of time.
  • There are counseling requirements for the proposed adoptee if he/she is 10 years of age or older

International Adoption:

  • Adoption of a child from outside the United States who can be classified as an orphan according to the United States, Department of Homeland Security, Bureau of Citizen and Immigration Services.
  • Potential adoptive parents must be thoroughly assessed through a Pre-Placement Study (homestudy) process which includes background checks, financial stability screening, medical screening, child abuse screening, employment verification, identity and marital status verification, references, home inspection and extensive individual and couple (when applicable) interviews.  If the potential adoptive parent/s are assessed to be a stable, safe and appropriate parent/family for a child, then they are approved for adoption.  If they are not approved for adoption, they cannot adopt.  There may be additional international or BCIS requirements.
  • The Hague Treaty, to which the United States is a signatory, governs most international adoption processes along with the country of origin of the designated adoptee.


 

Adoption Assistance Agency | 2800 Eubank Blvd. NE | Albuquerque, NM 87112 | 505-821-7779

Birth Parents

The Homestudy Process | Adoption Process | Birthparent Perspective | Types of Adoption

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